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Lev-On, Azi. 2011. Campaigning online: Use of the Internet by parties, candidates and voters in national and local election campaigns in Israel. Policy and Internet, 3(1).

This article analyzes Internet usage by key political players—candidates, parties and the public—during national and municipal election campaigns between 2007 and 2009 in Israel. Parties maintain a presence on a variety of Internet platforms, are aware of the potential of the Internet and are willing to divert budgets for Internet campaigns, but there are extensive differences in the character and scope of online campaigning between large and small parties and between Internet uses in general and in municipal elections. In the municipal elections, incumbency, size of the electorate, competitiveness of the race, and the socio-economic characteristics of the constituency impacted on the probability of having a website. Many sites functioned largely as upgraded message boards, and most had few interactive features. The study concludes by stressing the need for a theory of technology usage in both high- and low-visibility campaigns, taking into account strategic, environmental, and individual-level variables that may influence the scope and character of Internet usage by candidates


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